Minerals in Gilgit-Baltistan

Gemstone Paradise: Discovering the Wealth of Minerals in Gilgit-Baltistan

Pakistan and Afghanistan have a 2,430 km long porous border. As a result, Pakistan began to receive and trade a variety of Afghan minerals. Peshawar, in Northwest Pakistan, became the first, direct, and exclusive market for all minerals found in the two countries following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979. Karachi, the sole port city in Pakistan, had the biggest market in the country before the occupation (directional raw and precious stones exclusively). Karachi’s significance and contribution to mineral resources vanished with the advent of Peshawar.

Pakistan’s History of Gemstone Mining and Business:

The mining and business of gemstones in Pakistan dates back thousands of years. For generations, Pakistan has been renowned for its exquisite and semi-precious stones, and the gemstone industry has played a vital role in the nation’s economy.

Pakistan has been mining gemstones since the Indus Valley Civilization (2600-1900 BCE), according to the oldest documents. The ancient Indus Valley people were adept in extracting and trading the valuable minerals and gemstones that abound in the region that is now Pakistan. The ancient gem trade was centered on Taxila, in modern-day Pakistan, where traders traveled from all over the world to purchase jewels.

Mining Areas in Pakistan:

Pakistan has many mining areas that are rich in mineral specimens. Some of the most notable mining areas for mineral specimens in Pakistan are:

Mineral Occurrences:

The mechanisms that result in the formation of mountains appear to be closely linked to the mineral occurrences in the Hindu Kush and Karakoram. The diversity of mineralization is caused by the wide range of local country rocks, changes in element transfers along fault zones, variances in metamorphic modifications, and geochemical circumstances. Pegmatites are the primary source of minerals in northern Pakistan. Apatite, tourmaline, and beryl (aquamarine) are a few examples. The primary mechanisms responsible for corundum and ben (emerald) creation are hydrothermal and metamorphic ones. However, the mechanisms of formation are not always well characterized.

Gilgit Baltistan:

The Baltistan locale fall is in Pakistan’s Northern Regions. The locale is home to vast quantities of icy masses, waterways, and little, anonymous streams. The greatest months to make a trip to Baltistan are August to October. It can get ruthlessly warm in the late spring with temperatures ordinarily arriving at 44 degrees Celsius in the high mountains, d there is no lack of murderous bug. Balti, a language similar to Tibetan, is spoken in the locale.

The Route to Skardu:

Skardu is the capital of Baltistan. This city lies southeast of Gilgit at a height of around 2,300 meters. It requires an entire day to travel the 215 kilometers from Gilgit to Skardu, and there are a lot of top notch mineral territories en route. The Gilgit-Skardu Street branches off from the Karakoram Expressway around 37 kilometers south of Gilgit at the Alam Extension. There the Indus turns north toward the Haramosh massif, renowned for its finds of achroite, almandine, sea blue, fluorite, clear quartz, diopside, ilmenite, epidote and as of late green lazulite. Critical finds of magnetite, orthoclase, schorl, spessartine, titanite and topaz exhibit the geologic variety of this mineralogically rich locale.

Swat Valley:

The Swat Valley, located in the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, is one of Pakistan’s most well-known locations for gemstone mining. The area is well-known for its emerald mines, which provide some of the world’s best emeralds. The majority of the mines in Swat Valley are run by the local populations, who collect gemstones from the nearby rocks using conventional mining techniques.


The Hunza Valley in Gilgit-Baltistan is another significant gemstone mining zone in Pakistan. Gemstone reserves in this region are well-known, and include topaz, aquamarine, and tourmaline. Most of the small-scale mines in Hunza Valley are run by nearby communities.

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